How the keyboard works: master the keys and speed up your tasks without using the mouse!

Understanding the usefulness and functioning of the keyboard is essential, whether for work, studying, relaxing on social networks, chatting or even online gaming, and that’s why you need to understand the functions of the parts of a computer keyboard.

In fact, knowing each of the parts of the computer keys will help you type faster, streamline processes and do two tasks at once without having to use the mouse all the time.

can you imagine being able to open and close windows with just a few computer keys? well, this and much more can be achieved with the keyboard functions of a computer or laptop.

Therefore, in this article we will explain in depth the parts of the keyboard and its functions. so get your fingers ready and pay close attention, because learning the inner workings of the keyboard will bring you more benefits than you think.

how is a computer keyboard divided?

To begin with, you should know that every computer keyboard is made up of, or rather, divided into six parts: number keys, alphanumeric keys, function keys, control keys, special keys and scroll keys, which allow you to reduce time or increase your productivity.

Also, you should keep in mind that the 6 areas of the computer keyboard perform almost the same functions as on a laptop, but differ in that they are presented in a compact format to save space and do not have the parts of the numeric keypad on the right.

That said, it is time to know in detail each of the fundamental parts of the keyboard of a computer or laptop.

Keyboard parts and functions

As we mentioned before, the computer keyboard has several parts that are grouped according to a very specific keyboard function, which can help you a lot to learn how to type fast. Well, according to their functions, the parts of the keyboard are classified into the following categories:

1. Alphanumeric keys

Undoubtedly, these are the keys that will help you better understand how your computer keyboard works, since they include all the letters of the alphabet, from A to Z. Among the parts of the alphanumeric keyboard, the ñ is also included.

Also called typing keys, it includes the punctuation marks, the delete key, the space bar and the Enter key. also, this is the largest part of the keyboard, as it contains more than 50 buttons for typing .

A curious fact about this type of keypad is that its design closely resembles the keyboard of the old typewriters. have you ever used one? Surely so you became familiar with this type of keys.

Teclas alfanuméricasSource: Freepik

2. Numeric keys

Depending on the type of computer keyboard you have, will be the place where you can find this type of keys, whether they are on the top or on the right side of the alphanumeric keys. The main function of the numeric keypad is, as its name says, to type the numbers from 1 to 9, including 0 .

It also sometimes has the dot key, the Enter key, as well as the addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and number lock keys. Doesn’t this keyboard function remind you of a tool you used to use in your math classes? Yes, a calculator.

The parts of the numeric keypad are also commonly found separately and are not integrated with the computer hardware. Also, these number keys are usually connected with a USB cable, or older keyboards may use a serial connector instead of USB.

But now it is common to have wireless keyboard operation, which eliminates the use of a cable, i.e. the keyboard and computer are connected thanks to Bluetooth technology. What’s more, some standalone numeric keyboards have a single-line LCD display, such as the calculator and the Kensington keyboard.

persona usando un teclado Source: Pexels

3. Function keys

These keys are found at the top of all keyboards, whether on a desktop computer or a laptop. The functions of this part of the keyboard are very diverse, although the most obvious feature of this type of keys is that they are used to perform specific tasks.

One of the main functions of these keys is that you can use them before starting your computer or when it is already on, and surely you have already used some of them to exemplify the operation of the keyboard, although you can recognize them because they range from F1 to F12.

However, MacBooks have a slightly different keyboard operation, with keys on the top and bottom rows smaller to fit a laptop size. Newer MacBooks Pro with Touch Bar do not have the top row with function keys, but instead have a touchscreen that changes the options displayed depending on the context.

dedo presionando la tecla de función F1 Source: Freepik

4. Control keys

To explain how the keyboard works you only need to remember these keys: Alt, Control, Windows Key (or Command, if you have a Mac computer keyboard) and Esc.

Sometimes, you can make combination of these keys together with the alphanumeric keys to do other functions of your computer keyboard, depending on the program you are in.

teclas de controlSource: Pexels

5. Special keys

When we talk about these parts of the keyboard and their functions we are referring to the little buttons that say Delete, Home, End, Page Down (PgUp), Page Down (PgDn) and Print Screen (may also be labeled Print Screen or PrtScrn) .

Some of these keys may not even be known to you anymore, as they are not very necessary for the operation of new computer keyboards or special keyboards, such as what happened to the Scroll Lock key. were you ever able to know the function of this key?

teclas especialesSource: Xataka Mexico

6. Scroll keys

Although they are often grouped with the special keys, such as forward or backward, these parts of the keyboard refer to the navigation arrows that are so commonly used in online games or even in some shortcuts in Adobe’s suite, such as Shift+Command+Down Arrow to reach the keyboard.they are also used in some shortcuts in the Adobe suite, such as Shift+Command+Down Arrow to get to the last page of the file, as well as other tips to speed up your work.

It is a part of the keyboard that functions as a mouse substitute, or in a sense, these keys can be used to navigate the computer cursor. You can easily move the computer cursor with these scroll keys. Without a doubt, they are essential when it comes to understanding how the keyboard works.

As you may have noticed, the functions of the keyboard are varied, since they help you a lot when it comes to reducing time through keyboard shortcuts, moving across the page, deleting information, inserting images or blocking certain parts of the keyboard.

But, the main function of the keyboard is to enter information that the computer will process not only in texts, but also when it comes to using HTML tags and CSS properties.

Keyboard shortcuts

One of the best ways in which you can take advantage of the parts of the keyboard is with great agility in your fingers, so don’t be afraid to put yourself to the test. According to, “knowing how to type means being able to find all the keys without the need to look at the keyboard and without thinking”, which will save you more time when typing on your keyboard.

To make your work easier, we will share with you the keyboard quick functions you didn’t know you needed. Believe us, it will make your life easier.


Well, first let’s start with Windows OS keyboard shortcuts, which you probably know some of them.

F1 – Opens the help window of the program you are using when you press this key on the computer keyboard.

F2 – This function key is ideal for renaming a document in your computer’s file explorer.

F3 – According to Windows keyboard operation, if you press this key, you will be directed to the search wizard.

F4 – In the browser, it allows you to select the URL of the page you are on.

F5 – This is probably a computer key you use a lot to reload the page.

F6 – If you are in your browser, pressing it will allow you to select the tab you are working on and, if you use the navigation arrows, you will be able to switch tabs.

F7 – Although this key does not have a specific keyboard function, sometimes each computer brand gives it a special function.

F8 – One of the functions of this key is that, if you press it several times at startup, it will give you the option to enter the safe mode of your computer.

F9 – Apparently, it does not have a specific function.

F10 – If you press it inside your favorite browser, it will allow you to enter the configuration menu.

F11 – Pressing this key on your keyboard will expand the window to cover your entire screen.

F12 – Its specific function is still a mystery to mankind, but surely in your computer it has some function, what is it?

Ctrl + Indent: in your browser, allows you to move between tabs to the right.

Ctrl + Shift + Indent: you can move one tab to the left in your browser.

Ctrl + Esc: opens the Windows menu.

Windows key + any numeric key: if you press the combination Windows + 7 it will open the application #7 in your taskbar.

Ctrl + delete: deletes words to the left.

Ctrl + Delete: deletes words to the right.

Ctrl + number key: if you are in your browser, it will position you on that tab number.

Ctrl + Alt + Indent: allows you to switch between the programs you have open on your computer.



The operation of the keyboard on a Mac computer is different from that of a PC with a Windows operating system, since Apple’s key sorting in its Mac OS operating system is divided into many special keys and unique characters.

If you are new to the world of Apple, you probably don’t know many of these keyboard shortcuts. Don’t worry, we’ll share with you the most essential ones:

F1: decrease screen brightness.

F2: increase screen brightness.

F3: open mission control.

F4: open launch platform.

F5: reduce keyboard brightness (only on supported laptops).

F6: increase keyboard brightness (compatible laptops only).

F7: skip backwards (audio).

F8: pause / play (audio).

F9: skip forward (audio).

F10: silence.

F11: volume down.

F12: increase volume.

Command + Shift + 3: unlike the Windows computer keyboard, there is no Print Screen key on the MacBook keyboard. This functionality is accessed via this keyboard shortcut, with which you can capture the entire screen.

Command + Shift + 4: capture the selected region. Your cursor becomes a crosshair and by clicking and dragging you can specify which area you want to capture.

Command + Shift + 4 + Space: capture the selected window. First, press the shortcut from above, then, when you have the crosshair, press Space. The cursor will rotate towards the camera and the active window will have a blue overlay. Click on it to capture it. In some programs, such as Photoshop, you must click Control to paste the screenshot into the software.

Command + X: cut the selected item and copy it to the clipboard.

Command + C: copy the selected item to the clipboard. This also works for files in the Finder.

Command + V: paste the contents of the clipboard into the current document or application. This also works for files in the Finder.

Command + Z: undo the previous command. Then, you can press Shift-Command-Z to redo, reversing the undo command. In some applications, you can undo and redo several commands.

Command + A: select all elements.

Command + F: search for elements in a document or open the Find window.

Command + G: search again.

Command + H: hide the front application windows. To see the main application, but hide all the others, press Option + Command + H.

Command + M: minimize the front window to the Dock. To minimize all the windows of the front application, press Option + Command + Command + M.

Command + O: open the selected item or a dialog box to select a file.

Command + P: print the current document.

Command + S: save the current document.

Command + T: open a new tab.

Command + W: close the front window. To close all application windows, press Option + Command + Command + W.

Control + Command + Spacebar: show the character viewer, from which you can choose emojis and other symbols.

Control + Command + F: use the application in full screen, if the app supports it.

Option + Command +Esc: force close an application.

Command + Spacebar: show or hide the Spotlight search field. To perform a Spotlight search from a Finder window, press Command + Option + Spacebar.

Command +Tab: switch to the next recently used application among your open applications.

Shift + Command +N: create a new folder in the Finder.

Command + Comma (,): open the preferences for the front application.

Option + Command + Power button: put your Mac to sleep.

Control + Command + Power button: force your Mac to restart, without prompting you to save open and unsaved documents.

teclado de una MacBookSource: Pexels

Undoubtedly, knowing how the computer keyboard works will help you to develop your own website, reduce time or acquire new knowledge and surprise your friends .

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