The types of views in technical drawing will help you understand how you can elaborate your next projects .as is well known, technical drawing is used in various fields and careers; whether in industrial design, interior design, architecture or even engineering.
The main idea of this type of drawing is to project images as they appear in reality, or the other way around, to make images that become objects. In this way, the three-dimensional representations shown on two-dimensional surfaces take shape and, with this, we can visualize real objects to scale, imagining their shape.
Therefore, you should keep in mind that to create some types of views in technical drawing, you should follow the following logic: include as few elements as possible, but as many as necessary to show the desired view.
So that you can complement your training in the industrial field, in this article we will explain in detail what are the views in technical drawing and their characteristics so that you can apply them in your projects. In addition, we will tell you how to make the views in technical drawing. Remember that the different types of views in technical drawing have a specific purpose.
1. Isometric view
Unlike the orthogonal view, isometric drawing types show the parts of an object three-dimensionally, and parallel lines are shown at a 30-degree angle.
Isometric view types of technical drawing views feature vertical and parallel lines. In addition, they have a true length, which means that you can use a ruler and the drawing scale to easily measure the length directly from the paper or plane. It should be noted that the same does not apply to angled lines.
Following the previous point, it is important to distinguish the isometric view from an isometric perspective, because the perspective view is a representation of an object as it appears or looks to the naked eye.
This view in technical drawing is the most commonly used in the engineering field, as it stays true to dimensions rather than optical illusions.
2. Orthogonal view
An orthogonal view is a way of representing a three-dimensional object in two dimensions. This type of view in technical drawing should convey everything necessary for the production of parts, thus avoiding any length distortion.
The most common way to communicate all the information is by using three different views in a multiple view drawing. But what are multiple views in technical drawing?
According to the book Technical Graphics Communication, multiple views are orthogonal projections where the object illustrated is behind the projection plane and the object is oriented in such a way that only two of its dimensions are shown.
It is worth clarifying again that, each of the images are two-dimensional and these are defined according to the positions of the projection planes in relation to the object, as you will see with the other types of drawing views.
3. Front view
Of the types of technical drawing views we will mention, this is the main view of the object and, as its name suggests, it projects the front or elevation view.
Being the most important view, it should include all the representative information of the object. For example, it specifically demonstrates the width and height dimensions of all the profiles that the part you plan to intervene has.
Source: Technical Graphics Communication
4. Top view
This view shows the width and depth dimensions. The plan view in technical drawing is projected onto the horizontal flat projection part, which is an overhanging top plane parallel to the object.
To draw this plan correctly, you must keep in mind that the plan must have the same width as the front view.
Source: Technical Graphics Communication
5. Side view
Regarding the side view in technical drawing, it shows the depth and height. This view must be congruent with the other views, for example, the profile must be at the same height as the elevation and the length must be the same for the plan and the profile.
In addition, in multiple view drawings, the right side view is the standard side view par excellence. This is projected onto the plane of the right profile projection, which is a plane parallel to it.
These views are the main axis for you to recognize the type of views in technical drawing and on which we will focus later to provide you with some resources and materials so that you know how to make them.
6. Section View
Although you already know the main views in technical drawing, there are still other types of views that you should keep in mind. One of them is the section view.
A section view can easily show some of the features of the part or plane that are not evident when viewed from the isometric and orthographic view.cross-section is the preferred option compared to hidden lines, as it provides more clarity.
Section views are characterized by shading patterns that indicate the areas where the material was cut. Complex parts may feature multiple section views.
7. Cutaway view
Continuing with the same image that we used to illustrate the section view, but with a small difference: the side view in technical drawing includes cutouts.
The cutouts can reduce the number of different views in a single drawing or plan. Therefore, we could easily eliminate the section view and add all the necessary dimensions to the cutouts.
8. Detail view
The detail view is one of the types of views in technical drawing that gives you a close-up of a selected section of a larger view. This can be especially useful if a large part includes many important dimensions in a small area. Using the detail view improves the readability of these measurements.
When the orthographic view presents complex and difficult to dimension areas, detail views are used to highlight these areas. These views in technical drawing do not need to be the same size or placed in line with orthographic views and can be drawn anywhere on the drawing.in fact, they are labeled with a single letter that shows which area of the orthographic view is being detailed.
9. Auxiliary view
An auxiliary view allows you to represent planes that are neither horizontal nor vertical. This type of view in technical drawing helps to show inclined surfaces without any distortion.
Importance of views in technical drawing
Now that you know the types of views in technical drawing, it is vital to mention the importance of the views of a plane, so you will have a better understanding of the subject.
Therefore, to know what are the views in technical drawing and what are they for, we will go back to the projection methods, which are the basis for representing three-dimensional objects in planes, since they allow us to generate views in an understandable and simple way.
So, technically speaking, the view of an object is also known as an orthogonal projection on a specific plane.
Planes in technical drawing
It should be noted that, although the views depend on the projections, we cannot use them as synonyms when explaining the types of views in technical drawing, because there are special characteristics and particularities in each of these, as we will see below.
Therefore, we can simply define the types of views in technical drawing as the way in which we see an object from a certain position. Although there are hundreds of possibilities from different points, in technical drawing only six faces are considered, such as the faces of a cube:
Orthogonal projection in types of view in technical drawing
When we see the importance of views in technical drawing, there is a lot of talk about orthogonal projection. Basically, it is a representation system, which allows to draw in different planes an object with volume.
The type of orthogonal projection is widely used in the types of views in technical drawing to achieve the graphical representation of an object, that is, it is the one that is created from the tracing of all the projected perpendicular lines.
It is worth mentioning that you should pay close attention to the term perpendicular, because it is the key to generate a plane and create the views in technical drawing.
Types of view projections in technical drawing
Additionally, according to the portal Dibujo técnico, we can find these types of projection of views in technical drawing:
First dihedral or Europeanmethod
American orthird dihedral method
On the one hand, in the European system, the object is between the observer and the projection plane. On the other hand, in the American system, the projection plane is between the observer and the object.
In both cases, these types of technical drawing projections include the object inside a cube. An advantage of analyzing the types of views in technical drawing through projections is that it provides, on the same plane, the six main views of the object being analyzed.
Therefore, the classes of projections in technical drawing will help you to examine a particular object and be aware of each of its parts, as well as to understand the way in which they intervene with each other, in order to, later on, execute those planes correctly.
If orthogonal projections are of great value, it is because they make it possible to discover the characteristics of the object that cannot be perceived with some other element of technical drawing. This occurs in every technical drawing view that can be made from a projection.
Image: Eduardo Suarez
how to draw the types of views in technical drawing?
To get the types of views in technical drawing well structured in your next project, in addition to having the right technical drawing tools, you must make sure that all the provided views correspond to each other and keep in mind other key points.
Keep in mind that most 3D CAD programs have an interface for technical drawing that allows you to easily create different types of views. This interface has the indispensable elements to dimension and apply consistency to your drawing, eliminating the need to design the views from scratch.
Here are some tips on how to create views in technical drawing. take note!
1. Make sure all views in technical drawing are related to each other.
As we mentioned before, the types of views in technical drawing must be connected to each other, because if they are not, the congruence of the plan is lost.
In real work, you need the main views in a technical drawing. Each of the views shows two of the three dimensions of height, width and depth. Remember that each view is formed by projecting through the object and onto the image plane.
To do this, pay special attention to the following:
The front view, the plan view and the back view must have the same width.
The front view, right and left profile, as well as the rear view, must match in height.
The left and right profile, plan and bottom view must have the same depth.
2. Distinguish between the types of views in technical drawing and the types of projection
As we saw before, the definitions of types of views in technical drawing and types of projection in technical drawing can be confused, but we will tell you how views and projection methods vary within a technical drawing project.
The main difference is that when we talk about the types of views in technical drawing we mean that they are the orthogonal projections of the sides of the part, while the projection methods are the distribution of these in a plane.
Thus, it is very important to know them thoroughly, since it depends on them that the construction drawings of a part are read correctly, whatever the method you use in the types of views in technical drawing.
3. Focus the technical drawing views as much as possible
Remember to leave enough space between the different types of views to add dimensions. Avoid excessive use of hidden lines, as they can make the drawing look confusing and disorganized.
4. Add detail and/or section views as appropriate
If the plan is very complex, has hidden features or has areas that are difficult to dimension, then these types of technical drawing views are ideal for clarifying your project.
5. Include the isometric view
The isometric view is not always necessary, but should be included whenever there is space and if the part geometry is too complex to be easily interpreted from orthogonal views alone.
6. Place construction lines
These are center lines, center marks or cut lines that simplify all views in technical drawing.
7. Add dimensions to your drawings
Concentrate on vital dimensions in orthographic and detail views. Make sure that all dimension lines and figures are clearly visible and do not cross each other or the drawing.
Dimensions are very important aspects of defining views in technical drawing. When a client does not specify dimensions, it is assumed that the size has been left to the discretion of the experts, who may not establish the size desired by the client.
8. Draw your technical drawings with an HB pencil
These types of pencils provide sufficient clarity while keeping smudging to a minimum. use that to your advantage! You can harden the construction lines later with a softer pencil (2B+).
In this way, it will be easier to establish the views in technical drawing, because if there are any errors in the line you can easily modify them.
9. Select a suitable technical drawing template
Last but not least, use a technical drawing template that allows you to draw your drawings smoothly. In fact, there are standard ASTM, DIN and ISO templates that specify the coordinates, the angle of protection and the characteristics of the title block.
You can also create a custom template, but remember to include all the necessary details in the title block and, of course, in the different types of views.
Image: Graphic piziadas
great job! Now that you know the different types of views in technical drawing, you are ready to create exceptional design projects. Remember that technical drawing views must be congruent with each other; otherwise, the design will not be true to the real object and this could be detrimental to the execution of your project in the future.
As you can see, view drawings are a big part of an engineer’s or architect’s job. In fact, doing them contributes to a complete and effective design project.
If you plan to work with real estate firms that need multiple view drawings, you should know the basics at a minimum. Leaving room for interpretation creates a situation where your idea may not be executed as planned. And there is no one to blame but the author.
Therefore, consider this stage of the design project development process as an integral part that requires time and effort. keep our handbook on tools for your inner illustrator handy and make a rendering of views in technical drawing that dazzles at first sight!